2011年10月30日

威州記遊(11) Blue Mound State Park 藍丘州立公園

Blue Mound State Park, Oct 2011

Blue Mound State Park -「藍丘州立公園」,位於威斯康辛首府麥迪遜西方大約30英哩處,公園得名於一座小山丘,雖然只比附近平坦大地高出大約100多公尺,已經足以讓在藍丘成為西南威州地理的最高點。

公園內設施簡單,有草地涼亭桌椅供家庭出遊野餐,還有踏上長短不一的數條步道在樹林間漫步,最顯眼的設施就屬兩個作觀景瞭望塔,登高望遠,視野大開,尤其我們造訪時正值初秋,樹葉紅黃綠相間,相當好看。

西側觀景塔上還有一個指認其他無冰磧帶(driftless area)小丘的指示牌,天氣好時可以看見其他幾個微微突出地表的小山丘,如Belmont Mound、Platt Mound等,不禁讓人想到在台灣爬山時每回登頂時認山頭的樂趣...

公園不大,也不算是什麼名山勝景,如果沒有打算健行,不用一小時就逛完了,如果剛好路過附近,不仿登上觀景台展望威斯康辛的農村地景。

《更多威州遊記請見:威州記遊 (目錄&地圖)

--
Blue Mound State Park (DNR網站介紹):
開放時間:每天6-11。
門票資訊:威州車牌$7,外州車牌$10,也可購買州立公園年票$25。
交通資訊:從Madison出發往西,上WI-Highway18,過Mt Horeb後經Blue Mounds後抵達。

檢視較大的地圖

威斯康辛秋色

觀景瞭望臺

認山頭時間

向西南展望,左上可以看見另外兩個小丘!

Indian Market Tree (美洲原住民作記號的樹)


多希望秋天別走



2011年10月22日

[廣告] 第18屆北美台灣研究學會年會(NATSA2012)論文徵集

人在異鄉念念不忘的那片美麗海洋

第18屆北美台灣研究學會年會(NATSA 2012)將於2012年6月8、9日於美國印地安納大學
布魯明頓校區(Indiana University-Bloomington)盛大舉行。本次年會會議主軸設定為
「台灣:門戶,節點,閾境空間(Taiwan: Gateway, Node, Liminal Space)」,歡迎研
究主題涉及台灣的海外學生與學者投稿參加,研討會相關訊息可至本學會網頁查詢
(http://www.na-tsa.org/)。

北美台灣研究學會(North American Taiwan Studies Association, NATSA)是一個主要
由台灣海外留學生所共同組成的學術組織,學會成員同時也包含許多對台灣有興趣的外籍
研究生。我們的主要使命是籌備舉辦每年的北美台灣研究學會年會(NATSA annual
conferences),從各個研究領域探討當代台灣社會所面對的重要議題。北美台灣研究年
會是目前北美最大的台灣研究學術活動;該會議不僅是台灣研究的學者和學生知識交流的
定期論壇,也是對東亞地區及全球問題有興趣的研究人員,獲得動態交流和開闊學術視野
的重要場合。

NATSA 2012預計提供參與者兩項參與之管道:

1) 主題式的徵稿啟事(CALL FOR PAPERS/PANELS): 參與者可以針對今年學會所設計之
徵稿啟事撰寫研究論文(關於徵稿啟事之內容,請參見本會網頁
http://www.na-tsa.org/new/2012conference/call-for-panelspapers.html)。

2) 學科式的學者論壇(NATSA SCHOLAR WORKSHOP): 參與者若屬人類學、電影研究、文
學、與政治科學領域之學者與研究生,亦可選擇發表其博士論文之全部或一部,或最近已
刊登或即將刊登之學術出版品。NATSA學者論壇沒有既定主題,凡參與者之出版品或博士
論文與台灣相關即可報名參加。(關於NATSA學者論壇之內容,請參見本會網頁
http://www.na-tsa.org/new/2012conference/natsa-scholar-workshop.html)。

兩項參與管道之投稿期限均為2011年12月25日。請注意此一期限將不會有任何展延,請有
興趣之參與者遵守相關期限。

北美台灣研究學會年會長期以北美研究生作為主要徵稿對象(包含台灣與外籍生社群)。
為了擴展台灣在國際學術社群中之能見度,本會今年計畫邀請至少15~20位學者與會,希
望透過今年的會議,讓北美台灣研究學會年會成為對台灣有興趣之各領域學者定期聚會分
享研究成果之學術論壇。本會目前已敲定10位老師與會,其中包含開幕講者法國里昂政治
學院高格孚教授(Prof. Stphane Corcuff),與主題講者美國威斯康辛大學政治系
Edward Friedman教授。此一名單將持續擴增,相關內容可上本會網頁查詢
http://www.na-tsa.org/new/2012conference/invited-scholars.html)。

我們誠摯歡迎研究台灣的年輕學者共同參與此一盛會,若對會議細節有任何問題,均歡迎
與我們聯絡,來信請寄NATSA Secretary < secretary@na-tsa.org >。期待明年與您在印
地安納布魯明頓相見!!

NATSA 2012 幹部群  敬邀


2011年10月20日

[低碳] 別被GDP唬了 看看污染的外部成本!

圖/公視節目「有話好說」依據詹長權教授的報告所整理,六輕污染對於雲林沿海鄉鎮居民健康的衝擊。
(圖片來自有話好說節目網站)

文/劉仲恩(低碳生活部落格志工寫手團)

 在經濟學的第一堂課中,我們學到國內生產毛額(Gross Domestic Product, GDP)是用來衡量一個國家經濟活動的主要指標,GDP原本只是用來估算國家經濟的總產出,卻常常被引伸來衡量一個國家的福利水平,每到選舉季節,政治人物都會喊出響亮口號,提出追求更高的經濟成長率的計畫。

GDP的計算有什麼問題

 事實上,經濟成長與和社會幸福很難畫上等號,關於GDP這指標的批評早已是老生常談,有個故事說,要追求經濟成長,只要把窗戶打破就行了,因為財產損失不記在GDP公式之中,而為了採購新窗戶會為木匠和玻璃工帶來生意,又刺激了原物料的需求,所以理論上,打破窗戶真的可能創造成長。這也是為什麼每次發生大地震時,都會有人說重建工作將帶動經濟成長,就GDP計算的公式來說,這講法可能正確,但如果因此額手稱慶,就犯了邏輯上的謬誤。

 另一個對GDP常見的批評是該指標沒有考慮外部成本(Externality),許多經濟活動造成的負面效用(如污染、塞車、生態破壞等等)並沒有計算在GDP之中,在光鮮亮麗的高經濟成長率的背後,通常伴隨著巨大的社會和環境成本。世界各地的經濟學家深知GDP這指標的種種缺陷,也積極嘗試發展如類似「綠色GDP」等等新的指標,無奈這方面進展有限,新提案也通常不被政治人物青睞。

污染的環境成本不容忽視

 在最近一期的《美國經濟評論》(The American Economic Review)中,耶魯大學Mendelsohn和Nordhaus兩位環境經濟學家和明德學院(Middlebury College)的Muller教授針對GDP的環境成本發表了最先進的研究,他們利用環境經濟學的估價方法,將空氣污染危害量化後記入國民所得帳,如此這般,將附加價值減去其外部成本,才能表現出經濟活動真正創造出的價值。

 在此研究中,三位學者以美國2002年的經濟產出為資料,估算各個部門產生空氣污染的總損害,結果顯示,該年因為空氣污染造成的總損失大多來自於對於人體健康的危害,規模高達1840億美金,超過該年總GDP的百分之一,更重要的發現在於,這些空污損害僅僅集中在幾個特別的產業,如發電廠、石化、採礦、廢水處理等等產業,造成的損失甚至超過本身的經濟產值,也就是說,當這些產業計入校正過的國民所得帳,產生的是經濟負成長!

 無可厚非地,使用能源就難免造成污染,這研究結果並不代表這些產業應該立刻停止生產,這研究要傳達的結論是,美國政府對於這些產業的污染管制遠遠不足,才導致每一單位產出,造成的損失大過於價值。管制者需要提高排污的價格,使廠商付出反應環境與社會成本的真實價格,才能達到最有效率的產出。

經濟發展切勿唯GDP是問

 如果你相信這個刊登在美國首屈一指的經濟學術期刊的研究,那麼,防治污染和節能減碳就成了一個理性人的最佳決策,這研究提醒了我們原來平常在市場之外隱形的外部成本竟然那麼巨大,你我都沒有察覺到空氣污染造成的危害,很可能遠超過產品的價值。值得一提的是,本研究估算的僅僅是空氣污染的危害,還不包括其他水污染、生態破壞和全球暖化的成本,我們為了追求經濟成長所付出的代價,遠遠不只本研究估算的那一小部份。

 這篇研究以美國作為研究對象,誠然美國國情跟台灣不同,但是應將GDP扣除外部成本的原則放諸四海皆準。由此觀之,停建國光石化是個完全正確的決策,中興大學陳吉仲教授估算出國光石化的外部成本可能高達一千多億台幣,完全大於其可能帶來的經濟效益,我們期待政府在制定往後的經濟政策時,能夠摒棄唯GDP是問的原則,尤其需要嚴格檢視高污染高耗產業「真實」的經濟效益,全盤考量相對應的社會與環境成本,才能將台灣帶往一個更公義更永續的社會!

低碳生活部落格原文: http://lowestc.blogspot.com/2011/10/gdp.html

【參考資料】
Muller、Mendelsohn、Nordhaus論文原始連結

【延伸閱讀】
綠色經濟藥方 搶救生態系與人類福祉》邱育慈 28-Oct-10 低碳生活部落格
推升GDP外 國光石化的經濟風險》謝孟哲 6-Mar-11 低碳生活部落格
國光石化 挑戰政府環保救國決心》朱淑娟 6-Mar-11 低碳生活部落格
最新研究:六輕與癌症顯著相關 所得最低罹癌最高 雲林的無奈與憤怒》8-Jun-09 公共電視有話好說


2011年10月10日

《Grad Skool Rulz》── 研究所教戰守則

Praire du Sac,WI   Oct. 2011
願各位研究生都能找到心中那道美麗的虹

印第安那大學社會系教授FabioRojas最近出版了一本叫做Grad SkoolRulz》的研究所教戰守則,這本書原來是社會學部落格Orgtheory.net上面一系列的專欄,因為文章廣受好評,該教授將原來的章節重新編輯,又增加了大約50%的內容後,集結出版成電子書。

這本書主要寫作對象是人文與社會科學的博士生,特別是志於從事學術研究工作的年輕學者,雖說如此,很多學術生涯所面對點點滴滴是不分領域的,相信自然與工程科學領域的同學還是能夠從書中學到很多,至於MBA、醫學、藝術以及種種非「研究」導向的學位,則不在本書的討論範圍之中。

本書分成59個章節,內容包山包海,從申請研究所、找指導教授、考資格考、寫論文、找工作、投稿期刊、博士後、一路寫到教授升等終身職(tenure)才結束,作者筆法直接了當,平實中肯地呈現出學術生活中的高低起伏,是我看過最受用的教戰守則,很多時候都有「啊,早點有人跟我說這些就好了…」的感覺。有心但還沒開始念博士班的同學,可以從本書一窺學術生涯的真實面目,已經身處在漫漫學術道路上的同學,也一定可以從文中找到一些實用的建議。

電子書下載的網誌:http://www.smashwords.com/books/view/93455
(只要3美金就可以下載全書,我個人覺得很划算啦,也請尊重作者的智財權不要將全文檔案任意轉寄。)

不想花錢買電子書的同學,也可以上Orgtheory.net參考專欄,內容跟電子書不會差異太大,網址在:http://orgtheory.wordpress.com/category/grad-school-rulz/

我個人特別推薦的章節有開卷前三章 (1) Do not Go to Graduate School (2) Picking a Graduate Program (3) Don’t Pay for Grad School,這些內容特別適合還正在準備申請的同學,第一章由一個中生代教授來勸退你讀研究所,很有說服力吧!如果你看過內容還覺得自己適合,那也許你有足夠決心,要知道博士班是寂寞又辛苦漫漫長路,根據粗略統計,所有進入博士班就讀的學生當中,大約只有一半的人能夠順利畢業,有人資格考沒過,有人指導教授跑路,有人因為私人原因離開,有人唸了幾年因為志趣不合打退堂鼓,早點看看過來人怎麼說,才不會過了幾年再抱怨自己上了賊船。第二三章談找學校跟找獎學金,都是很中肯的建議。

20What can you say to your advisor?,談如何拿捏跟指導教授相處的分際,相信對很多人會有幫助。第23Words for Women談女博士生的甘苦和第25章講When to Quit,都非常精彩,這些是很重要卻很少人會對你說的實話。

以下我摘錄一些我自己讀完覺得特別精彩的段落供大家參考,更多內容請自行參考電子書:
  • In general, I recommend against graduate school. The Ph.D. is expensive in terms of money and time and many graduate programs are poorly run. The doctoral degree prepares you for academic research but rarely confers skills that would be useful in other jobs. Some non-academic employers even see the Ph.D. as a liability. Therefore, you should not go to graduate school unless you have an exceptionally strong belief that being a professor is the right career for you. Even in the sciences, there aren’t enough teaching positions and schools can’t absorb all recent Ph.D.’s. Many science Ph.D. holders will find jobs in industry. 
  • Graduate school is a huge investment of time and money. A graduate program is an apprenticeship that’s much longer than those found in most other jobs. For that reason, graduate education is not really school, it’s a job.
  • Graduate school is only for people who have a strong internal drive and have the organizational skills necessary to function in an environment with little or no supervision. In medical school, you have to graduate in four years. They force you out. In graduate school, if you are too lazy or disorganized to write your dissertation, no one will care. Your school or department will let you hang for years. The result? About 90% of medical students become doctors, while only half of Ph.D. students finish their program. 
  • Graduate school is not to be taken lightly. Don’t start graduate school because you don’t know what else to do with your life or you have a tough time with a regular job. If you are thinking about graduate school because you can’t find a job or hold a job, stop. Learn how to find a job and hold a job. Become someone who can learn skills and who other people want to be around. There is no point in being a journeyman academic unless you are highly self-motivated. Outside of academia, you will make more money, you’ll have the same job stability, and you will have more time. 
  • Do not go to any graduate program that does not offer a tuition waver for the first 4-5 years, especially if it’s a private school. If they don’t offer some sort of assistance, decline the offer. There are always other programs you can go to and you can re-apply until you get an offer of financial support. ...It’s a bad sign if a department is unable to support entering graduate students with fellowships, assistantships, or teaching. ...If you are in the position of having to pay tuition, complain a lot. Contact the graduate chair, the dean of graduate studies, or whoever is in charge of advising students. 
  • Research should be your main activity, and after you complete the required courses, courses should be your extra-curricular activity. Courses should help you develop your research ideas. To summarize, courses are important in short term, but irrelevant in the long term. Only take them if you must, but you can indulge in one or two fun courses. In the long term, courses are not as important as your research. 
  • By the second to third year of grad school, you should already have begun to develop a “taste.” You should know what appeals to you. These are the articles that I consider exemplars of good research and theory, while these are not. This requires you to be critical, but you must also go beyond that. A successful graduate student – a future scholar – will make the next step and figure out how to produce new research. Thus, taste is critical, but it is also productive. 
  • Make some graduate school friends. Your ultimate success in graduate school depends on the creativity and effort you invest in your work, but having a good set of friends is important. Do realize that having just a few good dependable friends can make a big difference in the quality of your graduate education – and beyond! Your graduate school friends will likely remain your tenure-track friends who will help you through the assistant professor years. 
  • Dissertations are not masterpieces! Sure, a few dissertations are masterpieces, but dissertations are, at best, rough drafts of promising work. Many are simply useless pedagogical exercises. Even Einstein’s first dissertation was not well received. Therefore, you should write a well-crafted and competent work. The goal is to show you can actually complete competent research within a reasonable time period. You can write a masterpiece later in your career. The only good dissertation is a complete dissertation. Seriously. The overwhelming majority of dissertations are not read, published, or cited. In fact, if you submit your unrevised dissertation for publication, the reviewers might reject it on the grounds that “it reads like a dissertation (= tendentious student work).” Therefore, once you have mastered the basics of research in your field, just get it done! 
  • However, it is also important to know that academia is not the right choice for everyone – even among those who possess the talent to complete the PhD degree. Let’s start this discussion with two obvious points. First, graduate education is the training school for a specific profession – being a professor. That means the program is set up to help you master an academic discipline, produce research in it, and teach it. This is job training. If you don’t want that job, then there is no point in continuing. Second, there is no moral obligation to get a doctoral degree. Switch to another career. Just as it’s acceptable for an accountant to switch to lawyering, or an actor may quit the theater to start their own business, it’s totally normal for a graduate student to switch to another career. Finding the right job is an important, and expected, feature of life.

最後,祝各位研究生求學愉快!加油!


2011年10月6日

威州記遊 (緣起)

Arriving Madison, WI


2011-04-14

[前言] 翻開旅遊地圖,威斯康辛從來不是熱門路線,這個中西部農業州沒有太多地形起伏,最高的山大概可以比擬台北象山;首府麥迪遜,雖然小而美,跟真正城市比起來,稱作大農村也不為過;說到歷史,這鄉下哪裡比得上東岸的人文薈萃。

當年我的確懷著這般的心情,從新英格蘭開了1000英哩搬到威斯康辛,作好萬全心裡要在玉米田裡認真讀書。兩個年頭轉眼溜過,雖然還是想念大山大水,我慢慢體會出,中西部的美,不是震懾人心的壯美,而是一種比較內斂又的美感,需要時間去沈澱去領悟,一旦瞭解在地人事物的小故事,小山小水也自有一番情趣。

(當然還有另一種比較直白的說法,因為把標準降得很低,所以只要在單調的地景上有些特色,就會讓人很驚喜。)

總之,我打算回歸寫遊記的老本行,為威州的小山小水留下一點文字和影像的紀錄。

2011-10-06

威州記遊系列堂堂邁入第10集了,半年寫10篇,成績不算太差,今天把遊記整理了一下,加上目錄和地圖,希望更方便大家閱讀。現在還積了一堆之前去玩的遊記沒寫,感覺在我畢業前寫個50~100篇不成問題,如果有人知道怎樣可以順利出版一本旅遊書麻煩跟我說一聲...

大學時愛爬山和鐵道旅遊,留下了不少行程紀錄,出國之後這類文章產量少了很多,直到來到威斯康辛,博士班穩定的生活讓我不再懷著遊子的飄泊心,可以認真在一方土地上生活,於是開始有動力寫這些遊記。

最喜歡的旅遊部落格是tonyhuang前輩Tony的自然人文旅記,最佩服他可以把歷史懷想和個人情感自然的融合在遊記間,也喜歡劉克襄,將自然生態和人文歷史完美結合,希望有朝一日可以學到他們的一些皮毛。

也歡迎讀者多多利用下方留言交流討論,祝大家在威斯康辛玩得開心!


威州記遊 (目錄&地圖)

My very first sight of Wisconsin, 2009.07.01

威州記遊地圖 

說明:所有遊記中出現過的景點都以藍色記號標記,可以縮放或以滑鼠拖曳,點擊藍色記號就能聯結相對應的遊記文章,希望方便大家使用!


View 威州記遊 in a larger map




威州記遊總目錄

緣起

密爾瓦基

(17) Miller Brewing Compnay 美樂啤酒廠 (2010.03)
(22) Mitchell Park Domes 米契爾圓頂植物園 (2012.05)
(29) Harley-Davidson Museum 哈雷機車博物館 (2011.05)
(31) Pabst Mansion 帕斯特大宅 (2012.07)

麥迪遜

(3) Wisconsin Governor's Mansion: 威斯康辛州長官邸 (2011.06)
(16) Henry Vilas Zoo 麥迪遜亨利費拉動物園 (2012.01)
(20) UW Arboretum 威斯康辛大學植物園 (2012.03)
(21) Olbrich Botanical Gardens 歐布里植物園 (2010.10/2012.4.8)
(27) UW-Madison Geology Museum 威斯康辛大學地質博物館 (2013.08)

中心地帶 (Baraboo & Wisconsin Dells)

(1) Portage-Green Lake-Ripon  (2011.04)
(7) Wollersheim Winery 華勒沙酒莊 (2011.09)
(10) Forevertron: Dr. Evermor's Art Park 破銅爛鐵雕塑公園  (2011.09)
(14) Devil's Lake State Park 惡魔湖州立公園 (2011.10)
(25) Aldo Leopold Shack and Farm 李奧波農莊故居 (2012.05)
(26) Parfrey's Glen 帕夫瑞峽谷 (2012.05)
(30) Merrimac Ferry 美麗美渡船 (2013.10)

東北威

(8) Lambeau Field (and Green Bay) 綠灣包裝工球場 (2011.06)
(15) Sheboygan & the Kohler Company 謝柏根市Kohler公司旅遊 (2011.06)
(23) Door County (2009.09|2012.06)
(35) Northern Highland (Rheinlander, Eagle River, Lake Superior, and Wausau) 北威高地遊 (2013.08)

西北威
西南威

(5) Highway 151: Mt Horeb, Dodgeville, Mineral Point, Belmont & Dubuque 西南威漫遊 (2011.06)

(後方括號內為實際出遊日期)
(遊記照片皆為本人所攝,器材為 Sony DSC-H50, Nikon D3100, 18-105mm VR)

威斯康辛文化觀察系列

威斯康辛麥迪遜與保釣運動
《Being Bucky》── 吉祥物巴奇獾的一年
《The War at Home》── 遙想威斯康辛學運傳統
Teach me how to Bucky
寫在地球日40週年之前
Are You a Coastie?



威州記遊(10) Forevertron: Dr. Evermor's Art Park 破銅爛鐵雕塑公園

Dr. Evermor's Art Park, Sep 2011

這是一個我五顆星推薦的冷門景點。

Tom Every先生原本是一個拆除工程專家,因為對於古董機械的熱愛,他開始到處蒐集破銅爛鐵,從1983年開始,他化名成Dr. Evermor開始使用這些四處找來的「垃圾」作為創作材料,化腐朽為神奇。他的工作室兼私人雕塑園區位在Highway 12路邊僻靜一角,入口沒有明顯地標,也不收門票,靜待有緣人來相識。

走入園區,首先會看到一大片私人資源站,擺放著尚未使用的創作素材,接著"The Forevertron"就映入眼簾,這是園區裡最主要的雕塑作品,這個重達300噸的結構,是金式世界紀錄裡全世界最大的廢鐵雕塑(還有多少這麼有心的人呢?),使用的材料包括了愛迪生的發電機(!),阿波羅11號的消毒室,還有從附近Badger軍火工廠就地取材的好貨。現場觀之,實在氣勢非凡,很有種超現實感,瞬間從附近大片玉米田間進入了一個奇幻世界。

除了Forevertron之外,還有許多不同主題的大型雕塑作品,我印象最深的是一個金屬鳥交響樂團,每隻鳥兒都有不同神態,手持各式老樂器,有些傳神,有些詼諧,處處都是細膩巧思,如果花點時間在樂團席間來回散步,你會發現很多藝術創作帶來的驚喜,我跟雅婷都覺得這些作品比起大多數美術館的雕塑都要有趣的多!

總之,這真是個很怪的地方,但偏偏怪得很有趣味,怪得很特別,讓人印象深刻。你在世界上哪裡還找得到第二個這樣的「廢鐵雕塑公園」呢?

Madison居民可能對這樣的雕塑作品並不感到陌生,城東的Paterson街上有兩隻廢鐵打造成的巨鳥(真的很大!照片見文末),同樣是Dr. Evermor的傑作,另外在湖濱腳踏車道也有幾隻鐵鳥,是他學生的作品。

參觀這個雕塑公園大約半個小時就很足夠了,很適合在來回Devil's Lake的路上停留。我沒有放太多照片,一方面那天天氣不好,再來也怕破壞參觀的趣味,大家有空可以自己一探究竟!

《更多威州遊記請見:威州記遊 (目錄&地圖)

--
Forevertron (Wikipedia介紹):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forevertron
開放時間:周一四五六,每天9-5,周日12-5,周二三休園。
門票資訊:免費入園
交通資訊:從Madison出發往西,經Middleton上WI-Highway12,過Praire du Sac後約7mile抵達。


View Dr. Evermore's Forevertron in a larger map


Metal Peacock



"The Forevertron"

Director Bird

The Bird orchestra

Yating directing a Frog orchestra

公園入口處,看清楚不要錯過囉!

兩隻矗立在Paterson St的大鳥,同樣是Evermor的作品

2011年10月5日

[轉錄] Steve Jobs史丹佛大學2005年畢典演講稿(中英對照)


--
Thank you, Steve Jobs.
Your words has inspired me so much when I was a wandering college graduate.
I have been hungry and foolish ever since.
My deepest gratitude to you, and may you rest in peace.  2011.10.05
--


演講全文為Steve Jobs在2005年史丹佛大學畢業典禮演講台詞 。
This is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005.



You've got to find what you love'

今天,很榮幸來到各位從世界上最好的學校之一畢業的畢業典禮上。我從來沒從大學畢業過,說實話,這是我離大學畢業最近的一刻。今天,我只說三個故事,不談大道理,三個故事就好。

I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. Truth be told, I never graduated from college. This is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories.

第一個故事,是關於人生中的點點滴滴如何串連在一起。

The first story is about connecting the dots.

我在里德學院(Reed College)待了六個月就辦休學了。到我退學前,一共休學了十八個月。那麼,我為什麼休學?

I dropped out ofReedCollegeafter the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

這得從我出生前講起。我的親生母親當時是個研究生,年輕未婚媽媽,她決定讓別人收養我。她強烈覺得應該讓有大學畢業的人收養我,所以我出生時,她就準備讓我被一對律師夫婦收養。但是這對夫妻到了最後一刻反悔了,他們想收養女孩。所以在等待收養名單上的一對夫妻,我的養父母,在一天半夜裡接到一通電話,問他們「有一名意外出生的男孩,你們要認養他嗎?」而他們的回答是「當然要」。後來,我的生母發現,我現在的媽媽從來沒有大學畢業,我現在的爸爸則連高中畢業也沒有。她拒絕在認養文件上做最後簽字。直到幾個月後,我的養父母保證將來一定會讓我上大學,她的態度才軟化。

It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

十七年後,我上大學了。但是當時我無知地選了一所學費幾乎跟史丹佛一樣貴的大學,我那工人階級的父母將所有積蓄都花在我的學費上。六個月後,我看不出唸這個書的價值何在。那時候,我不知道這輩子要幹什麼,也不知道唸大學能對我有什麼幫助,只知道我為了唸這個書,花光了我父母這輩子的所有積蓄,所以我決定休學,相信船到橋頭自然直。當時這個決定看來相當可怕,可是現在看來,那是我這輩子做過最好的決定之一。當我休學之後,我再也不用上我沒興趣的必修課,把時間拿去聽那些我有興趣的課。

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

這一點也不浪漫。我沒有宿舍,所以我睡在友人家裡的地板上,靠著回收可樂空罐的退費五分錢買吃的,每個星期天晚上得走七哩的路繞過大半個鎮去印度教的Hare Krishna神廟吃頓好料,我喜歡Hare Krishna神廟的好料。就這樣追隨我的好奇與直覺,大部分我所投入過的事務,後來看來都成了無比珍貴的經歷。

It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. 

舉個例來說。當時里德學院有著大概是全國最好的書寫教育。校園內的每一張海報上,每個抽屜的標籤上,都是美麗的手寫字。因為我休學了,可以不照正常選課程序來,所以我跑去上書寫課。我學了serif與sanserif字體,學到在不同字母組合間變更字間距,學到活字印刷偉大的地方。書寫的美好、歷史感與藝術感是科學所無法掌握的,我覺得這很迷人。

Let me give you one example:ReedCollegeat that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found it fascinating.

我沒預期過學這些東西能在我生活中起些什麼實際作用,不過十年後,當我在設計第一台麥金塔時,我想起了當時所學的東西,所以把這些東西都設計進了麥金塔裡,這是第一台能印刷出漂亮東西的電腦。如果我沒沉溺於那樣一門課裡,麥金塔可能就不會有多重字體跟等比例間距字體了。又因為Windows抄襲了麥金塔的使用方式,因此,如果當年我沒有休學,沒有去上那門書寫課,大概所有的個人電腦都不會有這些東西,印不出現在我們看到的漂亮的字來了。當然,當我還在大學裡時,不可能把這些點點滴滴預先串連在一起,但在十年後的今天回顧,一切就顯得非常清楚。

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

我再說一次,你無法預先把點點滴滴串連起來;只有在未來回顧時,你才會明白那些點點滴滴是如何串在一起的。所以你得相信,眼前你經歷的種種,將來多少會連結在一起。你得信任某個東西,直覺也好,命運也好,生命也好,或者業力。這種作法從來沒讓我失望,我的人生因此變得完全不同。

Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.

我的第二個故事,是有關愛與失去。

My second story is about love and loss.

我很幸運-年輕時就發現自己愛做什麼事。我二十歲時,跟Steve Wozniak在我爸媽的車庫裡開始了蘋果電腦的事業。我們拼命工作,蘋果電腦在十年間從一間車庫裡的兩個小夥子擴展成了一家員工超過四千人、市價二十億美金的公司,在那事件之前一年推出了我們最棒的作品-麥金塔電腦(Macintosh),那時我才剛邁入三十歲,然後我被解僱了。
我怎麼會被自己創辦的公司給解僱了?

I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired.

How can you get fired from a company you started?

嗯,當蘋果電腦成長後,我請了一個我以為在經營公司上很有才幹的傢伙來,他在頭幾年也確實幹得不錯。可是我們對未來的願景不同,最後只好分道揚鑣,董事會站在他那邊,就這樣在我30歲的時候,公開把我給解僱了。我失去了整個生活的重心,我的人生就這樣被摧毀。

Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating. 

有幾個月,我不知道要做些什麼。我覺得我令企業界的前輩們失望-我把他們交給我的接力棒弄丟了。我見了創辦HP的David Packard跟創辦Intel的Bob Noyce,跟他們說很抱歉我把事情給搞砸了。我成了公眾眼中失敗的示範,我甚至想要離開矽谷。但是漸漸的,我發現,我還是喜愛那些我做過的事情,在蘋果電腦中經歷的那些事絲毫沒有改變我愛做的事。雖然我被否定了,可是我還是愛做那些事情,所以我決定從頭來過。 
I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

當時我沒發現,但現在看來,被蘋果電腦開除,是我所經歷過最好的事情。成功的沉重被從頭來過的輕鬆所取代,每件事情都不那麼確定,讓我自由進入這輩子最有創意的年代。

I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

接下來五年,我開了一家叫做 NeXT的公司,又開一家叫做Pixar的公司,也跟後來的老婆(Laurene)談起了戀愛。Pixar接著製作了世界上第一部全電腦動畫電影,玩具總動員(Toy Story),現在是世界上最成功的動畫製作公司(聽眾鼓掌大笑)。然後,蘋果電腦買下了NeXT,我回到了蘋果,我們在NeXT發展的技術成了蘋果電腦後來復興的核心部份。我也有了個美妙的家庭。
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

我很確定,如果當年蘋果電腦沒開除我,就不會發生這些事情。這帖藥很苦口,可是我想蘋果電腦這個病人需要這帖藥。有時候,人生會用磚頭打你的頭。不要喪失信心。我確信我愛我所做的事情,這就是這些年來支持我繼續走下去的唯一理由。你得找出你的最愛,工作上是如此,人生伴侶也是如此。

I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers.

你的工作將佔掉你人生的一大部分,唯一真正獲得滿足的方法就是做你相信是偉大的工作,而唯一做偉大工作的方法是愛你所做的事。如果你還沒找到這些事,繼續找,別停頓。盡你全心全力,你知道你一定會找到。而且,如同任何偉大的事業,事情只會隨著時間愈來愈好。所以,在你找到之前,繼續找,別停頓。

Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.

我的第三個故事,是關於死亡。

My third story is about death.

當我十七歲時,我讀到一則格言,好像是「把每一天都當成生命中的最後一天,你就會輕鬆自在。這對我影響深遠,在過去33年裡,我每天早上都會照鏡子,自問:「如果今天是此生最後一日,我今天要做些什麼?」每當我連續太多天都得到一個「沒事做」的答案時,我就知道我必須有所改變了。

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

提醒自己快死了,是我在人生中面臨重大決定時,所用過最重要的方法。因為幾乎每件事-所有外界期望、所有的名聲、所有對困窘或失敗的恐懼-在面對死亡時,都消失了,只有最真實重要的東西才會留下。提醒自己快死了,是我所知避免掉入畏懼失去的陷阱裡最好的方法。人生不帶來、死不帶去,沒理由不能順心而為。

Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

一年前,我被診斷出癌症。我在早上七點半作斷層掃描,在胰臟清楚出現一個腫瘤,我連胰臟是什麼都不知道。醫生告訴我,那幾乎可以確定是一種不治之症,預計我大概活不到三到六個月了。醫生建議我回家,好好跟親人們聚一聚,這是醫生對臨終病人的標準建議。那代表你得試著在幾個月內把你將來十年想跟小孩講的話講完。那代表你得把每件事情搞定,家人才會盡量輕鬆。那代表你得跟人說再見了。

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 inthe morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

我整天想著那個診斷結果,那天晚上做了一次切片,從喉嚨伸入一個內視鏡,穿過胃進到腸子,將探針伸進胰臟,取了一些腫瘤細胞出來。我打了鎮靜劑,不醒人事,但是我老婆在場。她後來跟我說,當醫生們用顯微鏡看過那些細胞後,他們都哭了,因為那是非常少見的一種胰臟癌,可以用手術治好。所以我接受了手術,康復了。

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.

這是我最接近死亡的時候,我希望那會繼續是未來幾十年內最接近的一次。經歷此事後,我可以比先前死亡只是純粹想像時,要能更肯定地告訴你們下面這些:

This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

沒有人想死。即使那些想上天堂的人,也想活著上天堂。但是死亡是我們共同的終點,沒有人逃得過。這是註定的,因為死亡很可能就是生命中最棒的發明,是生命交替的媒介,送走老人們,給新生代開出道路。現在你們是新生代,但是不久的將來,你們也會逐漸變老,被送出人生的舞台。抱歉講得這麼戲劇化,但是這是真的。

No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

你們的時間有限,所以不要浪費時間活在別人的生活裡。不要被教條所侷限--盲從教條就是活在別人思考結果裡。不要讓別人的意見淹沒了你內在的心聲。最重要的,擁有追隨自己內心與直覺的勇氣,你的內心與直覺多少已經知道你真正想要成為什麼樣的人,任何其他事物都是次要的。

Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

在我年輕時,有本神奇的雜誌叫做《Whole Earth Catalog》,當年這可是我們的經典讀物。那是一位住在離這不遠的Menlo Park的Stewart Brand發行的,他把雜誌辦得很有詩意。那是1960年代末期,個人電腦跟桌上出版還沒出現,所有內容都是打字機、剪刀跟拍立得相機做出來的。雜誌內容有點像印在紙上的平面Google,在Google出現之前35年就有了:這本雜誌很理想主義,充滿新奇工具與偉大的見解。

When I was young, there was an amazing publication calledThe Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here inMenlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.

Stewart跟他的團隊出版了好幾期的《Whole Earth Catalog》,然後很自然的,最後出了停刊號。當時是1970年代中期,我正是你們現在這個年齡的時候。在停刊號的封底,有張清晨鄉間小路的照片,那種你四處搭便車冒險旅行時會經過的鄉間小路。

Stewart and his team put out several issues ofThe Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous.

在照片下印了行小字:求知若飢,虛心若愚(Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish)。

那是他們親筆寫下的告別訊息,我總是以此自許。當你們畢業,展開新生活,我也以此祝福你們。

求知若飢,虛心若愚。

非常謝謝大家。

Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

Thank you all very much.



2011年10月4日

威州記遊(9) Monroe County: Cranfest 小紅莓季

2011 Cranfest @ Warrens, WI

威斯康辛州是全美國最大的小紅莓產地,而大部分的小紅莓都集中產在威州中部的Monroe County一帶,這區域在很久的地質年代前是個湖(請見DNR網站),湖水沈積後的沙地和沼澤造就了小紅莓絕佳的生長環境。

出產小紅莓,自然就誕生了英文名為「Cranfest」的「小紅莓祭」,從1973年開始,到今年已經辦了39屆,每年在9月的最後一個週末,這個名叫Warrens的小鎮都會迎來數萬名的遊客,今天我們也抓緊機會湊熱鬧。

小紅莓祭為期3天,五六日,我們在禮拜天下午兩點才到場,儘管已經有些準備收攤的感覺,還是人潮洶湧,在地廣人稀的中西部,出了主要城市幾乎都看不到這樣的人潮。主辦單位號稱現場有超過1000個攤位,果真也沒騙人,原本人口幾百人的小鎮,幾乎所有可以擺放攤位的街道都被活動佔據,攤位以賣藝品的為大宗,古董阿,畫阿,裝飾品阿,小家具阿,玩具阿,可惜幾乎都是我沒興趣的東西;食物攤位也不少,就是一般美國園遊會常見的Corn Dog, Kettle Corn, Gyro, Lemonade等食物;比較特別的是有一些街頭藝人表演,我們駐足5分鐘看了一位魔術師從帽子裡變出一個南瓜。

活動跟我想像的有不小的落差,我原本期待可以看到小紅莓收成整片紅色莓海的景緻(就像這樣),結果問了當地人了才發現離採收時間還有幾週(大概是因為這樣才有時間辦園遊會),主辦單位有安排參觀小紅莓田的行程,我們也錯過,只能怪自己沒做好功課。最後我們看到小紅莓相關攤位屈指可數,有小紅莓薰香,小紅莓果汁,我們帶了小紅莓果醬作紀念,因為新鮮小紅莓和小紅莓冰淇淋大多都售罄…

Cranfest好像被我寫得很無趣,其實也沒那麼糟啦,如果你沒有參加過威州當地一些農業園遊會,或是想要深度體驗美國鄉村娛樂,還是值得一遊。

明年Cranfest滿40年,9月28到30日,詳情請見官網: http://www.cranfest.com/index.cfm

《更多威州遊記請見:威州記遊 (目錄&地圖)

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Cranfest網站:http://www.cranfest.com/index.cfm
開放時間:2012/9/28-30。
門票資訊:免費入場
交通資訊:沿I-94/90往北,經tomah取I-94繼續往北,135號出口下,即可抵達Warrens。
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The Cranberry Discovery Center, Warrens, WI

Magician!

Cranberry Specialities, one of the few booth that was really about cranberry

Downtown Warrens

Cranfest Main Stage

這張是順道在Tomah照的小古蹟
Little Red School House @ Tomah, WI

2011年10月2日

鄉愁極短篇

2011.08.25 台北家中


Facebook Message, August 11 at 6:45pm


@ Taipei Taiwan, my lovely hometown.



Facebook Message, August 24 at 12:57pm


明天一大早的飛機離開台灣,這一夜裡我坐在從小陪我長大的書桌前整理舊物,塑膠桌墊下壓著國中時的功課表,抽屜裡還有小學的貼紙收集簿。我將一些從前難以割捨的東西送進了回收箱,卻捨不得從小到大累積的卡片與信籤,我將它們安放妥善,泛黃的紙上承載了多少青春。也謝謝這回抽空跟我聚會的朋友們,是與你們同行,才有如此人生好風景。



October2 at 12:53pm


回到美國一個月,零時差重回學業軌道,時序入秋,季節流轉間,回台灣彷彿又是好久以前的事了。

留學生比如候鳥,每年往返太平洋兩端,精神卻得一直生活在兩個平行時空,我一邊讀論文辯證資本主義與自然環境的關係,另一頭在讀作家寫水城台北的都市記憶,再拿起另一本書鑽研台北三市街的都市發展史,就算能在美利堅大陸從容地演出自己,想念的,牽掛的,煩惱的,錯過的,總是故鄉。

在某個人生轉折點,我會回到那個熟悉的熱帶盆地,與北面火山群一同沈睡,見西邊那條河流漸清澈,證城東那些好的壞的變化萬千,再往南行開始每個新的冒險,願有那一天,能跟著你們度過溼冷的冬燠熱的夏,一起同行,續看人生好風景。


2011.08.18 國道一號中山高內湖段